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Author Guidelines and Online Submission (2024)

Online Submissions

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Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, an international journal, provides a forum for publishing the novel technologies related to a catalyst, catalysis, chemical reactor, kinetics, and chemical reaction engineering. Scientific articles dealing with the following topics in chemical reaction engineering, catalysis science, and engineering, catalyst preparation method and characterization, novel innovation of chemical reactor, etc. are particularly welcome. However, articles concerned on the general chemical engineering process and development of chemical process are not covered and out of the scope of this journal.

This journal encompasses original research articles, short communications, review articles (but not preferable), and letter to editor, including: fundamental of catalysis; fundamental of chemical reaction engineering; materials for catalysis; chemistry aspect of catalyst and catalysis; applied chemical reaction engineering; applied catalysis; applied bio-catalysis; applied bio-reactor; membrane bio-reactor; chemical reactor design; catalyst regeneration; surface chemistry of catalyst; bio-catalysis; enzymatic catalytic reaction; industrial practice of catalyst; industrial practice of chemical reactor engineering; application of plasma technology in catalysis and chemical reactor; and advanced technology for chemical reactors. However, articles concerned on the general chemical engineering process and development of chemical process are not covered and out of the scope of this journal.

As Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Enginering & Catalysis is a fully open access journal, your paper will be available to anyone, at anytime, anywhere in the world.

All papers submitted to this journal must be written in good English. Authors for whom English is not their native language are encouraged to have their paper be checked before submission for grammar and clarity in a professional English editing services. Authors are recommended to use the following professional English Editing Services.

Please be noted that the submitted work should not have been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. 

1. General Author Guidelines 

All manuscripts must be submitted to BCREC Editorial Office using Online Submission Service at the following URL address:, where Author should register first as Author role. If authors have any problems with the online submission, please contact Editorial Office at the following email: to ask supporting helps.

The following documents should accompany the manuscripts submitted by online through online submission interface (please upload as Supplementary Files section):

  • Signed Copyright Transfer Agreement for Publishing (CTAP) form originally (scan the document after signed or signed electronically) [Download the CTAP form here 2024]
  • Covering Letter which outlines clearly the basic novel findings of the paper and its significance.
  • Graphical Abstract as guided in this Author Guideline.

Three types of manuscripts are acceptable for publication: Original Research Articles, Short Communication (only for short novel findings article), Review Articles (only selected authors after contact to Editors), and Letter to Editor.


2. Cover Letter and Justification of Publication

A cover letter is required confirming that all authors listed agree to the content and publication of the submitted manuscript and that the manuscript is original and not being considered for publication by another journal. 

A separate paragraph within the Cover Letter, consisting of one to two paragraphs, that justifies publication in the journal is also required. The justification should explain what new discovery, interpretation, understanding, concepts, or catalytic system is advanced in the manuscript, and how the content fits within the scope of the journal. Note that it is essential to describe how the content of the new submission differ significantly from existing literature information and its relevance to catalysis. This section plays an important role in editor's decision of whether or not the manuscript will be sent out to for peer review.


3. Manuscript Template

The manuscript should be prepared according to the following author guidelines in the MS Word (doc, docx, pdf) article template format which can be downloaded here: BCREC MS Word Template 2024 (.docx)


4. Reviewing Process of Manuscripts

Every submitted paper is independently reviewed (see Peer-Review Process Policy) by at least two peer-reviewers. Authors may suggest up to three peer-reviewers when submitted the manuscript. The decision for publication, amendment, or rejection as well as assigning peer-reviewers are based upon their reports/recommendations and made solely by Editor.

However, if Editor(s) or Reviewers consider a manuscript unsuitable for publication in this journal, a statement explaining the basis for the decision will be sent to the authors after the submission date after the preevaluation step.


5. Revision of Manuscripts

Manuscripts sent back to the authors after revision should be returned to the Editorial Office without delay according to given deadline date.

The revised manuscript document files should be uploaded to the Online Submission Interface ( in the "Upload Author Version" from Review task window in Author window. 

The revised document files should include three files:


6. Graphical Abstract 

A Graphical Abstract of each article is mandatory for this journal. This graphic should capture the reader’s attention and, in conjunction with the manuscript title, should give the reader a quick visual impression of the essence of the manuscript without providing specific results.

Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system (as Supplementary Data File) or otherwise, can be submitted by email to after the manuscript has been accepted. Please state the manuscript number in your email subject.

Choosing/Creating a Graphical Abstract:

  • The graphic should be simple, but informative.
  • The use of color is encouraged.
  • The graphic should uphold the standards of a scholarly, professional publication.
  • The graphic must be entirely original, unpublished artwork created by one of the coauthors.
  • The graphic should not include a photograph, drawing, or caricature of any person, living or deceased.
  • Do not include postage stamps or currency from any country, or trademarked items (company logos, images, and products).
  • Avoid choosing a graphic that already appears within the text of the manuscript.

Image size: please provide an image with a size of 500 × 800 pixels (height × width).

Preferred file types: TIFF, JPG, PNG, PDF, or MS Office files.

For detail Guidelines of Graphical abstract, please visit the following page:


See the following for example of the graphical abstract:

Example 1 Graphical Abstract:


example graphical abstract 1


Example 2 Graphical Abstract:

example graphical abstract 2


Example 3 Graphical Abstract:

example graphical abstract 3


Example 4 Graphical Abstract:

example graphical abstract 4


Example 5 Graphical Abstract:

example graphical abstract 5


Example 6 Graphical Abstract:

graphical abstract 6


7. Editorial Office of BCREC Journal

All correspondences should be sent to the following Editorial Office of BCREC journal here:

Prof. Dr. I. Istadi (Editor-in-Chief)

Editorial Office of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis
Laboratory of Plasma-Catalysis (R3.5), UPT Laboratorium Terpadu, Universitas Diponegoro, 

Jl. Prof. Soedarto, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia 50275
Telp/Whatsapp: +62-81-316426342
E-mail: bcrec[at]


8. Guideline for Online Submission

Author should first register as Author Role through the following website:

The author should fulfill the form as detail as possible where the star marked form must be entered. After all form textbox was filled, Author clicks on “Register” button to proceed with the registration. Therefore, Author is brought to online author submission interface where Author should click on “New Submission”. In the Start a New Submission section, click on “’Click Here’: to go to step one of the five-step submission process”. The following are five steps in the online submission process:

  1. Step 1 - Starting the Submission: Select the appropriate section of the journal, i.e. Original Research Articles, Review Article, Short Communication, or Letter to Editor. Thus, the author must check-mark on the submission checklists. An author should type or copy-paste the texts of Covering Letter in Letter to Editor.
  2. Step 2 – Uploading the Submission: To upload a manuscript MS Word file to this journal (do not upload as PDF file), click Browse on the Upload submission file item and choose the manuscript document file (.docx) to be submitted, then click "Upload" button until the file has been uploaded sucessfully. NOTE: Do not upload a cover letter and other supplementary files here.
  3. Step 3 – Entering Submission’s Metadata: In this step, detail authors metadata should be entered including the marked corresponding author. NOTE: Author must enter all Authors data here, not only the corresponding author. After that, the manuscript title and abstract must be uploaded by copying the text and paste in the textbox including keywords.
  4. Step 4 – Uploading Supplementary Files: Supplementary file should be uploaded including: Covering/Submission Letter, Supporting Information (SI) (if any), and Signed Copyright Transfer Agreement for Publication (CTAP) Form. Therefore, click on the Browse button, choose the files, and then click on the Upload button.
  5. Step 5 – Confirming the Submission:  Author should final check the uploaded manuscript documents in this step. To submit the manuscript to BCREC journal, click the Finish Submission button after the documents are true. The corresponding author or the principal contact will receive a submission acknowledgment email and will be able to view the submission’s progress through the editorial process by logging in to the journal web address site. 

After this submission, the Authors who submit the manuscript will get a confirmation email about the submission automatically. Therefore, Authors are able to track their submission status at any time by logging in to the online submission interface. The submission tracking includes a status of manuscript review and editorial process.


9. Author Fee/Charge (Article Processing Charge - APC)

Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis is a fully open access international journal. Readers can read and download any full-text articles for free of charge (fully Open Access) in order to enhance the readibility and citebility of articles. 

As Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Enginering & Catalysis is a fully open access journal, your paper will be available to anyone, at anytime, anywhere in the world. Therefore, Article Processing Charges apply for publication in this fully open access journal.

Therefore, Author(s) (except for active Member of Editors/Editorial Board (free APC), and Peer-Reviewers (with discount)) should pay an Article Processing Charge (APC) of US$175,- (one hundred and seventy five US dollar only) or IDR 2,750,000,- (two million and seven hundred fifty thousand Indonesia rupiah only) per article, once the manuscript was accepted. An invoice will be sent to the Authors whose corresponding author of accepted article. Please note that the payment of APC can be proceeded by Online (Paypal or Credit Card) or via bank transfer which will be informed to Corresponding Author together with the invoice. The Editorial Office will send a payment receipt once the payment has been successfully received. The accepted articles will not be published until the APC was paid by Author(s). The APC will be used for maintaining the DOI registration and the fulltext PDF articles production cost.


10. User Rights (Copyright Notice and Open Access License)

Journal Author(s) Rights

Publisher of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis is Masyarakat Katalis Indonesia - Indonesian Catalyst Society (MKICS) and BCREC Publishing Group jointly with Department of Chemical Engineering Universitas Diponegoro. In order for Publisher to publish and disseminate research articles, we need non-exclusive publishing rights (transfered from author(s) to publisher). This is determined by a publishing agreement between the Author(s) and Publisher. This agreement deals with the transfer or license of the copyright of publishing to Publisher, while Authors still retain significant rights to use and share their own published articles. Publisher supports the need for authors to share, disseminate and maximize the impact of their research and these rights, in any databases.

As a journal Author, you have rights for a large range of uses of your article, including use by your employing institute or company. These Author rights can be exercised without the need to obtain specific permission. Authors publishing in BCREC journals have wide rights to use their works for teaching and scholarly purposes without needing to seek permission, including:

  • use for classroom teaching by Author or Author's institution and presentation at a meeting or conference and distributing copies to attendees; 
  • use for internal training by author's company; 
  • distribution to colleagues for their reseearch use; 
  • use in a subsequent compilation of the author's works; 
  • inclusion in a thesis or dissertation; 
  • reuse of portions or extracts from the article in other works (with full acknowledgement of final article); 
  • preparation of derivative works (other than commercial purposes) (with full acknowledgement of final article); 
  • voluntary posting on open web sites operated by author or author’s institution for scholarly purposes, 

(but it should follow the open access license of Creative Common CC-by-SA License).

Authors/Readers/Third Parties can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially, but they must give appropriate credit (the name of the creator and attribution parties (authors detail information), a copyright notice, an open access license notice, a disclaimer notice, and a link to the material), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made (Publisher indicates the modification of the material (if any) and retain an indication of previous modifications using a CrossMark Policy and information about Erratum-Corrigendum notification).

Authors/Readers/Third Parties can read, print and download, redistribute or republish the article (e.g. display in a repository), translate the article, download for text and data mining purposes, reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works, sell or re-use for commercial purposes, remix, transform, or build upon the material, they must distribute their contributions under the same license as the original Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA).


11. Manuscript Preparation Guidelines

11.1. General Organization of Paper

The paper will be published in BCREC journal after the peer-reviewed process and a final decision of "Accepted" article was made by Editor. The final paper layout will be produced by Editorial Office of BCREC journal. The final paper layout in PDF type, known as “Uncorrected Proof”, should be corrected by Author through the Proof Reading by Authors. This uncorrected article in PDF form will be displayed firstly in Article In Press section. Once the uncorrected proof was corrected properly by Authors, the final version of article will be finalized and prepublished in "In Progress Issue" of respected volume-issue number. 

According to Engelmore and Morgan [1], manuscript content should, in general, be organized in the following order: Title; Authors Name; Authors Affiliation; Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusions; Acknowledgments; and References. The manuscript document submitted to this journal (in one MS Word file) should be arranged as follow:

  1. Body text of the manuscript article (from Title to References, without tables and figures)
  2. Figure Captions and Table Captions. Figures and Tables must be separated from the body text of paper, put after References.
  3. Figures (one figure per page)
  4. Tables (one table per page)

Please include Covering Letter in a separate document file containing your summary of scientific findings and uploaded in Supplementary Files section.

11.2. Section Headings

Three levels of heading are allowed as follows:

  • Level 1 (Heading1 format) - 12pt, Century Schoolbook, Bold, Title Case, left-justified
  • Level 2 (Heading2 format) - 12pt, Century Schoolbook, Bold, left-justified
  • Level 3 (Heading3 format) - 12pt, Century Schoolbook, Bold, Italic, left-justified

11.3. Body Text

The body of the text is a set of body text paragraphs defined as follows:

  • 12pt Century Schoolbook
  • One-half space, defined as 12pt
  • Spacing after the heading is 3pt
  • Spacing before the new heading is 12pt
  • Indentation for the first line is 1 cm.

11.4. Bullets

Bullet and numbering within body text are not allowed. All sentences should be typed as a descriptive paragraphs.

11.5. Tables

Tables are sequentially numbered with the table title and number above the table. Tables should be centered in the column OR on the page. Tables should be followed by a line space (12pt). Elements of a table should be single-spaced. However, double spacing can be used to show groupings of data or to separate parts within the table.  Table headings should be in 10pt not bold. Tables are referred to in the text by the table number, e.g., Table 1. Do not show the vertical line in the table. There is only a horizontal line that should be shown in the table, as well as table heading.

11.6. Figures

Figures are sequentially numbered commencing at 1 with the figure title and number below the figure as shown in Figure 1. Detailed recommendations for figures are as follows:

  • Ensure that figures are clear and legible with typed letterings.
  • Black & white or colored figures are allowed.
  • If a figure spans two columns, it should be placed at the top or bottom of a page.
  • Hard copy illustrations should, preferably, be scanned and included in the electronic version of the submission in an appropriate format as follows: 
    • BMP - Microsoft bitmap file
    • WMF - Windows Metafile Format
    • EPS - Encapsulated Postscript
  • If figures cannot be scanned, the original should be placed in its location within the manuscript using wax or colorless glue.
  • The following files are permissible: 
    • Microsoft Graph
    • Microsoft Draw

Figure 1 shows an included Microsoft Draw object.

11.8. Equations

Equations should be numbered serially within parentheses as shown in Equation (1). The equation should be prepared using MS Equation Editor (not in image format). The equation number is to be placed on the extreme right side. The explanation of symbols in the Equation must be described as a paragraph not listed format.

11.9. Units, Abbreviations, and Symbols

Metric units are preferred and should be consistent throughout body text. Define abbreviations and symbols for the first time as they are introduced in the text.

11.10. Manuscript Heading, Font, and Spacing

The manuscript should be typed using word processors (Microsoft Word or Open Office) software. The font used throughout the paper is Century Schoolbook. The writting paper size is A4 (i.e., 210 x 297 mm), one-column format with a 2.5 cm margin at the top, a 2.5 cm margin at the bottom, 2.5 cm margin on the left, and 2 cm margin on the right. Lines are one-half spaced, justified. Page numbers should be included in the text located in the footer section of each page. 

Manuscript submitted to this journal should follow the heading below, except for the review article: Title; Authors Name; Authors Affiliation; Abstract; Keywords; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results and Discussion; Conclusions; AcknowledgmentsCRediT Author Statement, and References

11.11. Paper Title

This is your opportunity to attract the reader’s attention. Remember that readers are the potential authors who will cite your article. Identify the main issue of the paper within the titleBegin with the subject or highlight the idea of the paper. The title should be accurate, unambiguous, specific, and complete. Do not contain infrequently-used abbreviations.

The title of the paper should be in 16 pt bold Century Schoolbook and be centered. The title should have 0 pts space above and 12 pts below.

11.12. Authors Name and Affiliations

Write Author(s) names without a title and professional positions, such as: Prof, Dr, Production Manager, etc. Do not abbreviate your last/family name. Always give your First and Last names (should be at least 2 (two) words). The Middle Name is optional. Write a clear affiliation of all Authors. Affiliation includes the name of department/unit, (faculty), the name of university, address, country. Please indicate Corresponding Author (include email address) by adding an asterisk (*) in superscript behind the name.

Author names should be in 10 pt Century Schoolbook bold with 12 pts above and 12 pts below. Author addresses are superscripted by numerals and centered over both columns of manuscripts. Author affiliations should be in 10 pt Century Schoolbook italic. The body of the text should commence two lines (24 points) below the last address.

Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

As per BCREC Group policy, no author list changes are permitted after acceptance of an article. The BCREC Group production team is instructed to enforce this policy during the production/proofing process. 

Authors should consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript. The definitive list of authors should be provided at the time of the initial submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only BEFORE the acceptance of the manuscript and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the authors: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. The Editor retains the right to determine whether the addition or deletion of authors should be performed or not. The addition of deletion of author names in proofs is strictly prohibited.

Please be noted that only one author is allowed to be a Corresponding Author of an article which is indicated by an asterisk (*) symbol. The Corresponding Author may different from the Submitting Author. The Submitting Author may submit the manuscript on behalf of the Corresponding Author. However, other Authors may include their email addresses in addition to an email of corresponding authors.

The Corresponding Author is the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process. Generally, Corresponding Authors are senior researchers or group leaders with some – or a lot of experience – in the submission and publishing process of scientific research. They are someone who has not only contributed to the paper significantly but also has the ability to ensure that it goes through the publication process smoothly and successfully.

11.13. Author Contributions or CRediT Author Statement is required in this journal

CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was introduced with the intention of recognizing individual author contributions, reducing authorship disputes and facilitating collaboration.

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement in the manuscript outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing.

Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) as the following example. CRediT offers authors the opportunity to share an accurate and detailed description of their diverse contributions to the published work.

  • The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the descriptions are accurate and agreed by all authors.
  • The role(s) of all authors should be listed, using the relevant above categories.
  • Authors may have contributed in multiple roles.
  • CRediT in no way changes the journal’s criteria to qualify for authorship.

CRediT statements should be provided during the submission process and will appear above the acknowledgement section of the published paper as shown further below:

  • Conceptualization: Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims.
  • Methodology: Development or design of methodology; creation of models
  • Software: Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components.
  • Validation: Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/ reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs.
  • Formal analysis: Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data.
  • Investigation: Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection.
  • Resources: Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools.
  • Data Curation: Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse
  • Writing - Original Draft: Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)
  • Writing - Review & Editing: Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre-or postpublication stages
  • Visualization: Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/ data presentation
  • Supervision: Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team
  • Project administration:Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution
  • Funding acquisition: Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication

Example CRediT Author Statement:

Author Contributions: I. Istadi: Conceptualization, Methodology, Investigation, Resources, Data Curation, Writing, Review and Editing, Supervision; T. Riyanto: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal Analysis, Data Curation, Writting Draft Preparation, Visualization, Software, Project Administration; B. Jongsomjit: Validation, Writing, Review and Editing, Data Curation; D.D. Agggoro: Investigation, Resources, Writing, Review and Editing, Validation. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

11.14. Abstract and Keywords

An abstract should stand alone, which means that no citation and figures and equation format in the abstract. Consider it the advertisement for your article. The abstract should tell the prospective reader what you did and highlight the key findings. Avoid using technical jargon and uncommon abbreviations. You must be accurate, brief, clear and specific. Use words that reflect the precise meaning. The abstract should be precise and honest. Please follow the word limitations (100‐250 words).

The abstract must contain: backgrounds (if any, maximum 2-3 sentences), short clear objectives, short methods, final results or findings, and conclusion.

Keywords are the labels of your manuscript and critical to correct indexing and searching. Therefore the keywords should represent the content and highlight of your article. Use only those abbreviations that are firmly established in the field. e.g. DNA. Each word/phrase in keyword should be separated by a semicolon (;), not a comma (,).

11.15. Introduction

In the Introduction, Authors should state the objectives of the work at the end of the introduction section. Before the objective, Authors should provide an adequate background (maximum 1 paragraph), and very short literatures survey/review in order to record the existing solutions/method, to show which is the best of previous researches, to show the main limitation of the previous researches, to show what do you hope to achieve (to solve the limitation), and to show the scientific merit or novelties of the paper. Avoid a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Do not describe pieces of literature survey/review as author by author, but should be presented as group per method or topic reviewed which refers to some literatures. Before the objectives and after the literatures review, author must state the gap analysis or novelties statements to show why does this paper is important and what is unique idea of this paper compared to other previous researchers' suggestions.

One of the examples of novelty statement or the gap analysis statement in the end of Introduction section (after state of the art of previous research survey):

........ (short summary of background)....... .....(put here state of the art or overview of previous researches similar to this research).............. A few researchers focused on ....... There have been limited studies concerned on ........ Therefore, this research intends to ................. The objectives of this research are .........”.


........ (short summary of background)....... .....(put here state of the art or overview of previous researches similar to this research).............. A few researchers focused on ....... There is no researcher concerned on ........ Therefore, this research focuses on ................. Therefore, this research is aimed to .........”.



11.16 Materials and Methods

Materials and methods should make readers be able to reproduce the experiment. Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Do not repeat the details of established methods. For the chemicals, please provide details of brand and purity (example: CaO (Merck, 99.5%)) first, and state the concentration of chemicals in the procedure of the experiment. For the equipment instruments, please provide details of brand and type (example: "Gas Chromatography Mass Spectometry (Shimadzu QP2010 SE, Propapak Q column)" , "X-ray Diffraction (Shimadzu MAXima_X XRD-7000)", etc.


11.17. Results and Discussion

The results should be clear and concise. The results should summarize (scientific) findings rather than providing data in great detail. Please highlight the differences between your results or findings and the previous publications by other researchers. The discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

In the discussion, it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Make the discussion corresponding to the results, but do not reiterate the results. Often should begin with a brief summary of the main scientific findings (not experimental results).

The following important items should be covered in discussion:

  • How do your results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section? What is your finding of research? (what/how)? 
  • Do you provide interpretation scientifically for each of your results or findings presented? This scientific interpretation must be supported by valid analysis and characterization (why)? 
  • Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported (what else)? Or are there any differences? Comparison your results with other researcher results is mandatory required.


11.18. Conclusions

Conclusions should only answer the objectives of the research. Tells how your work advances the field from the present state of knowledge. Without clear Conclusions, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge the work, and whether or not it merits publication in the journal. Do not repeat the Abstract, or just list experimental results. Provide a clear scientific justification for your work, and indicate possible applications and extensions. This conclusion should be provided as a paragraph. You should also suggest future experiments and/or point out those that are underway.


 11.19. Acknowledgment

Recognize those who helped in the research, especially funding source supporter (Funder of Research) of your research financially. If required, include individuals who have assisted you in your study: Advisors, Financial supporters, or may another supporter, i.e. Proofreaders, Typists, and Suppliers, who may have given materials. Do not acknowledge one of the authors' names.


11.20. Citation and References

Cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based. Cite only items that you have read. Do not inflate the manuscript with too many references. Avoid excessive self‐citations. Avoid excessive citations of publications from the same region. Check each reference against the original source (authors name, volume, issue, year, Digital Object Identification (DOI) Number). DOI Number information must be provided (if available). It is suggested to use Reference Manager Applications like EndNote, Mendeley, Zotero, etc. Use other published articles in the same journal as models. NOTE: The minimum number of references should be 25 references, to make sure the adequacy of literatures cited.

Citation within body text of article to reference(s) must follow the numbering system. References must be presented sequentially and sorted to start from first cited reference.

Example: "Dye waste water has become an environmental problem due to the production of paper, textiles, gasoline, cosmetics, food industries, etc. [1]. Dye wastes are toxic, hazardous, and non-biodegradable [2], which may cause the destruction of aquatic living organisms [3]. As one of the dye compound, methyl orange (MO) is known as an azo anionic type that contains of −N=N− chromophore group and aromatic structure [4,5]."

All publications cited in the text should be included as a list of references. References are sequentially numbered as they appear in the text. Reference numbers are indicated in square brackets. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but maybe mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either “Unpublished results” or “Personal communication”. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, a reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

IMPORTANT NOTE: This journal has to follow standard templates available in key reference management packages like Mendeley ( To use the citation style of Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, please go to Mendeley Desktop application, Click View -> Citation Style -> More Styles…. In the pop-up window, click Get More Styles. Copy the link (, paste in Download Style, and press the Download button.

Using plug-ins to word processing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style, which is described below.

Recommendations for references are:

  • Please type all authors names. Using et al. for multiple authors is not acceptable.
  • When referencing in the body of text, use 12pt Times Roman in square brackets [1].
  • Types of references are as follows: 
    • For a Book, see [1]
    • For a Journal Article, see [2]
    • For a Magazine Article, see [4]
    • For a Proceedings Paper, see [5]
    • For a Technical Report, see [6]
    • For a Dissertation or Thesis, see [7]
    • For an Internet Reference (not preferable), see [8]

When preparing your reference list, the following should be avoided:

  • References not cited in the text.
  • Excessively referencing your work.
  • Insufficiently referencing the work of others.

It is also preferable when Authors give DOI number of each reference list in bracket [3], but it is optional for Authors. References list must be written consistently, whether the journal titles are written in short (i.e. Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal.) or in a long format (Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis). For short title of journals, please follow the standard here: abrvjt.html

Examples of guideline for preparing references list is described in the last section of this author guidelines.

11.21. References 

Citation within body text of article to reference(s) must follow numbering system ("..... [1], ...... [2-3], etc.") which should be started from references cited first. However, references list must be typed according to American Psychological Association (APA) Version 6.0. Authors should provide DOI number of each reference especially for journal articles.

[1]  Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened. (year). Book Title. Edition. Place: Publisher. ← Book

[2]  (Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened) Engelmore, R., Morgan, A. (1986). Blackboard Systems. Edition. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. ← Book

[3]  (Authors Last Name(s), First Name(s) in capital shortened). (year). Article Title. Journal Title. Volume (Issue Number: optional), page number start-page number end. DOI information. ← Journal

[4]  Robinson, A.L. (1980). New Ways to Make Microcircuits Smaller. Science, 208, 1019-1026. DOI: 10.1126/science.208.4447.1019. ← Journal

[5]  Bhavsar, D.S., Saraf, K.B. (2002). Morphology of PbI2 Crystals Grown by Gel Method. Crystal Research and Technology, 37, 51–55. DOI: 10.1002/1521-4079(200202)37:1%3C51::AID-CRAT51%3E3.0.CO;2-N ←Journal

[6]  Li, M., Xing, S., Yang, L., Fu, J., Lv, P., Wang, Z., Yuan, Z. (2019). Nickel-loaded ZSM-5 catalysed hydrogenation of oleic acid: The game between acid sites and metal centres. Applied Catalysis A: General. 587, 117112. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2019.117112. ←Journal

[7]  Clancey, W.J. (1983). Communication, Simulation, and Intelligent Agents: Implications of Personal Intelligent Machines for Medical Education. In Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 556-560. Menlo Park, Calif.: International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence, Inc. ←Conferences

[8]  Amin, N.A.S., Istadi, I. (2012). Different Tools on Multiobjective Optimization of a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network – Genetic Algorithm for Plasma Chemical Reactor Modelling. In Olympia Roeva (Editor) Real-World Applications of Genetic Algorithms. Croatia: InTech Publisher. ← Book Chapter

[9]  Rice, J. (1986). Polygon: A System for Parallel Problem Solving, Technical Report, KSL-86-19, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ. ←Report

[10]  Clancey, W.J. (1979). Transfer of Rule-Based Expertise through a Tutorial Dialogue. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Computer Science, Stanford University. ←Thesis

[11]  Ivey, K.C. (2 September 1996). Citing Internet sources URL http://www.eei- ←Website (but should be avoided)


11.22. Supporting Information (SI)

This Supporting information (SI) is provided to the reviewers during the peer-review process (for Review Only) and is available to readers of the published work (for Publication). Supporting Information file must be submitted, as separate file(s), at the same time as the manuscript, in Step 4 – Uploading Supplementary Files (by Choosing Supporting Information Type). If the manuscript is accompanied by any supporting information files for publication, these files will be made available free of charge to readers.

It is recommended to Author(S) to provide detail experimentals, calculations, and methods as well as all other additional experimental results and characterizations in the Supporting Information.

A brief, nonsentence description of the actual contents of each file, including the file type extension, is required. This description should be labeled Supporting Information and should appear after the Acknowledgement and Reference sections.

Examples of sufficient and insufficient descriptions are as follows:

  • Examples of sufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: 1H NMR spectra for all compounds (PDF)” or “Additional experimental details, materials, and methods, including photographs of experimental setup (DOC)”.
  • Examples of insufficient descriptions: “Supporting Information: Figures S1-S3” or “Additional figures as mentioned in the text”.