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Use of Sulfuric Acid-Impregnated Biochar Catalyst in Making of Biodiesel From Waste Cooking Oil Via Leaching Method

1Research Center for Chemistry, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia

2Chemistry Study Program, Universitas Riau, Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia

3Chemical Engineering Study Program, Insitut Teknologi Indonesia, Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia

4 Research Center for Environmental and Clean Technology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Tangerang Selatan, Banten, Indonesia

5 Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Kampus Bina Widya, Pekanbaru, 28293, Indonesia

6 Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Technic, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Tangerang Selatan, 15314, Indonesia

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Received: 4 Jan 2024; Revised: 20 Feb 2024; Accepted: 21 Feb 2024; Available online: 24 Feb 2024; Published: 30 Apr 2024.
Editor(s): Istadi Istadi
Open Access Copyright (c) 2024 by Authors, Published by BCREC Group
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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The biodiesel synthesis of waste cooking oil (WCO) over a impregnated biochar catalyst was systematically studied. This research aimed to prepare Biochar-based material that comes from coconut coir, activate it, and apply it as a catalyst to the esterification reaction of high-FFA waste cooking oil. Activation of the catalyst was done by impregnation H2SO4 solution in Biochar. The obtained catalyst was characterized by FTIR, XRF, XRD, surface area analyzer, and SEM-EDS. The esterification process was conducted by varying the catalyst weight (5, 7, and 10 wt%) and the reaction temperature (55 and 60 °C). The obtained liquid yields were characterized by GC-MS. The study found that the esterification process worked best with 10 wt% catalysts, a 1:76 mole ratio of oil to alcohol, and a reaction temperature of 60 °C. The waste cooking oil was successfully converted into biodiesel, reaching 84.50% of yield and 77.30% of purity (methyl ester content). Meanwhile, testing using national biodiesel standards with parameter limits of density, viscosity, iodine number, and acid number shows results that meet the requirements. Copyright © 2024 by Authors, Published by BCREC Publishing Group. This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA License (

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Keywords: biochar; solid-acid catalyst; high-FFA wasted cooking oil, biodiesel synthesis; esterification
Funding: The National Research and Innovation Agency of Indonesia (BRIN)

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